Advancement of Science in Recent Years

English Essay on "Advancement of Science in Recent Years"

Science has made a tremendous progress in the twentieth century, and every year it is taking a step further though in recent years so many discoveries and inventions have taken place in the, field of science, yet considering the limited scope of the essay, only a few very important ones, can be dealt here.

Science has achieved great success in the field of and surgery. The introduction of pencillin is an epoch making event in the history of medicine. All the older antiseptics were toxic to human organism than to bacteria. And it not only stops the growth of the bacteria, it kills them, so it is effective even if the natural protective mechanism of the body is deficient. Pencillin has proved itself immensely effective in war casualties and in a great variety of civil illnesses.

In surgery also wonderful improvements have been made. More than 96 per cent of those who were wounded in world war II and reached medical care, could survive on account of surgical operations. Some of the recent most astounding and successful surgical operations have been the operation of cancer of the pancreas, the removal of au entire lung for malignant disease, operation upon the great blood vessels that spring front the heart, setting distorted blood channels right, the cure of hypertension by removing two insignificant strand of nerve tissue from the back. Some may ask-What has science done with surgery? Surgery means trained fingers no doubt, but without science there would be no- way for that skill to operate.

Another very important and useful recent scientific advancement is the discovery of synthetic substances, like synthetic rubber, plastics, resins, fibres etc. This is essential because the supplies of raw materials of various types are limited and can not cope up the ever-growing demand. “Synthetic polymer’s is a term used by the chemist for the giant molecules he has learnt how to manufacture for very simple ones. Such polymers possess very different properties compared to substance from which they are derived.

Dozens of various kinds of plastic are now sold commercially. These very form the clear and transparent especially suitable for ornamental purposes or for aeroplane wind shields, very though, chemical-and heat resisting plastics for use as gaskets in chemical operations involving corrosive materials. There are resins and plastics for parts of chemical equipment, for coatings of wire to be used in the construction of small motors operating at a high temperature to produce the power of an ordinary large motor, for the waterproofing of fabrics for finishing of wood, metals, and even stoneware. The future will see transparent plastics that will not discolour and with surfaces that will not craze or search readily, finishes for wood and metals that will remain durable for long period of tune, in the presence of sunlight and salt air, and flexible, waterproof and moisture proof film of any desired strength.

Cotton, silk, and wool have been the fabrics used almost exclusively for fabrics until a few decades ago. Rayon and acetate silk were then introduced. These are both chemical modifications of cellulose, derived usually from cotton or wood. About twenty years ago nylon, a strictly synthetic fiber, made by combining very simple molecules into a complex one similar to those nature furnishes us, made its appearance. Chiefly because of its rapid-drying properties its durability, and its resistance to fungi and insects, it has found many applications for which natural fibres are not suitable. The brilliant researches in Japan extending over a period of forty years when the silk-worm was nurtured and pampered until he produced an egg-shaped instead of a peanut-shaped cocoon with a filament twice as long as formerly and of double strength, will be of no avail by the time the synthetic chemist has had a decade or more of additional experience. Newer synthetic fibres have appeared on the market - for example, Olon, Acrilan, Dynel which resemble one another somewhat in properties and are all based on the same simple chemical, acrylonitrile. Yet another fiber in Dacron. Suits made of Decron go through rainstorms without losing their crease and can be cleansed with soap and water without losing the original shape after drying.

After the invention of the atomic bomb, scientists have turned their attention to the large scale utilization of nuclear power for industrial and other useful purposes. Atomic reactors have been set up in various countries, for the purpose of producing energy. ‘These are Breeder Reactors for converting weaker type of uranium into that of higher Potency; Homogeneous Reactors which generate electricity: Naval Reactors which are used for supplying power to the subsarires and large ships, and the Aircrafts Reactors for propelling aeroplanes. All these Reactors a decade or so nuclear energy will be widely used for various purposes.

We can foresee the development of machinery that will make it possible to consult information in library automatically. Another machine that can be foreseen would be used, for translating from one languages to another, which maybe called an automatic translator. We may have also the automatic typist and the automatic stenographer, a machine that will listen to sounds and write them down in property spelled words.

These are some of the recent advancements in the field of science and encouraged by them we can hopefully look forward to still greater achievements.

The latest advancement in the realm of science is the launching of Satellites by the Russian and American scientists. Every effort is being made b y these scientists to send a rocket to the moon. These devices of outer space travel may have far-reaching effects. Explaining these Dr. Warner Von Braun; the German-born had of the U.S.A. guided missiles projects, who is the brain behind the explorer satellites told reporters at the International Astronautically congress held at Amsterdam in August, 1958. “The moon rocket the U.S.A. already possesses is almost powerful enough for an interplanetary trip to venus or Mars. The telegram satellites’ will be equipped with tape recorders to receive signals sent up from super-speeds electronic machine which can handle impulses of a millionths of a second. A satellite passing over London will record signals from the ground station there containing all the telegram for Frankfurt. Munich. Istanbul and soon. A few minutes later the satellite appears over Frankfurt, where on a signal from the ground station, it plays back all the messages for Frankfurt and is ready to receive more telegrams. A rate of only a penny a word will be enough to finance all space travel, including expeditions to the moon and mars. A little escape velocity takes you to the moon, a little more to Venice.

“The problem is that there are far greater distances involved, so guidance accuracy requirements even to get close are terrific. You may miss Venice by as much a million miles if you do not have a reasonable guidance system and convinced that the plan for a permanent manned satellite space station is feasible despite the recent discovery of a dangerous radiation belt round the earth.

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